Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal Verbs - Teoría

Muchos verbos en inglés, como TAKE o GET, pueden tener una gran cantidad de significados distintos. Algunos de ellos pueden ir seguidos de una palabra corta (una preposición como TO o FOR o un adverbio como AWAY o OUT) que le da al verbo un significado relativamente preciso. La combinación de VERBO + PREPOSICION/ADVERBIO se llama FRASE VERBAL.

Algunas FRASES VERBALES carecen de un equivalente en común:
PUT ON (ponerse) o TAKE OFF (quitarse) prendas
LOOK UP (buscar) palabras en un diccionario

GO ON continuar
CALL OFF cancelar
BLOW UP destruir con explosivos
TAKE IN incluir a alguien

FORMA de gramática inglés phrasal verbs:

La mayoría de las frases verbales son TRANSITIVAS; ellas normalmente toman un OBJETO. En muchos casos, cuando el OBJETO va entre el verbo reciben el nombre de FRASES VERBALES SEPARABLES. Tome nota de las dos posibles construcciones siguientes:
[SUJETO + PREP/ADVERBIO + OBJETO (sustantivo) ...]
'The A team blew up the house two days ago.'
'The A team blew the house up two days ago.

Tenga presente que si el OBJETO es un sustantivo, podría situarse ya sea antes o después de la preposición/adverbio. Pero si el objeto es un pronombre, debe situarse antes de la preposición/adverbio:
'The A team blew it up two days ago.'

La siguiente lista incluye FRASES VERBALES SEPARABLES comunes que obedecen a esta regla con ejemplos de como usarlos.

BACK UP (Apoyar a)
'He always backs up his family (backs them up).'

BLOW OUT (Extinguir)

BLOW UP (Destruir con explosivos)
'The A team blew up the house (blew it up).'

BREAK UP (Desmantelar algo o romper una relación)
'They're going to break their relationship (break it up).'

BREAK OFF (Romper o interrumpir)
'He decided to break off our friendship (break it off).'

BRING UP (criar niños)
'They brought up the kid (brought him up) very badly.'

CALL IN (Visitar a alguien)
'We called into my parent's house (called into it) to give them a surprise.'

CARRY OUT (Ejecutar)
'I carried out her demands (carried them out) as soon as I could.'

CLEAR UP (Ordenar, Limpiar)
'We cleared up the table (cleared it up) after we ate.'

CUT OFF (Cortar una parte de algo)
'They had to cut off his arm (cut it off).'

FILL OUT (rellenar un formulario)
'Please fill out this form (fill it out) with a black pen.'

FILL UP (Llenar)
'She filled up the tank (filled it up) with petrol.'

FIND OUT (Descubrir)
'He found out the secret (found it out) by reading private reports on wikileaks.'

FIX UP (Organizar, Ordenar, Reparar)
'We fixed up the car (fixed it up) in time for the trip.'

GET BACK (Recuperar)
'He never got back his children (got them back).'

GIVE BACK (Devolver)
'When are you going to give back the book from the school library (give it back)?'

GIVE UP (Dejar, Desistir)
'I gave up drinking (gave it up) yesterday.'

HAND IN (Entregar)
'They handed in their work (handed it in) when the day ended.'

HOLD UP (Demorar)
'The strike held up the film (held it up) for 1 year.'

KEEP UP (Continuar, Mantener)
'The company kept up the good figures (kept them up) for 5 years.'

KNOCK OUT (Dejar inconsciente)
'I knocked out the comedian (knocked him out) for being so annoying.'

LET DOWN (Decepcionar)
'He forgot about the dance and let down his daughter (let her down).'

LET OUT (Dejar salir)
'Don't forget to let out the dog (let it out) after eating.'

LOOK UP (Buscar en un diccionario, etc.)
'You must look up her phonenumber (look it up) in the phone directory.'

PAY BACK (saldar una deuda.)
'I promised to pay back the money (pay it back) in one month.'

PICK UP (Levantar)
'I saw you pick up the money (pick it up) from the floor.'

PUT DOWN (Volver a colocar en una superficie)
'Please put down the knife (put it down) before you hurt yourself.'

PUT OFF (Aplazar)
'We'll have to put off the football game (put it off) until it stops snowing.'

PUT ON (Ponerse algo)
'I put on my shoes (put them on) this afternoon.'

SET UP (Iniciar una compañia, etc)
'They set up the organisation (set it up) 10 years ago'

SWITCH ON/OFF (Encender/Apagar)
'Plase switch off the loghts (switch them off); I want to go to sleep.'

TAKE OFF (Quitarse algo)
'He took off his jacket (took it off) entering the house.'

TAKE OVER (Asumir control)
'He took over the company (took it over) when he was 20.'

TALK OVER (Hablar, analizar)
'I want to talk over your presentation ( it over). I think it was brilliant.'

THINK OVER (Considerar minuciosamente)
'I thought over your idea (thought it over) and I think it can work.'

'We're going to try out my new washing machine (...try it out) tomorrow morning.'

TURN ON/OFF (Abrir/Cerrar el paso del agua, gas etc.)
'Turn off the internet (turn it off). It is expensive.'

WIPE OUT (Destruir)
'Humans are wiping out the coastal areas (wiping them out).'